Manejo Sostenible Cuencas (MTV-FTG)

According to the IPCC (2014), access to water resources is increasingly limited due to the effects of climate change; in consequence, vulnerability of ecosystems and their inhabitants increases. Thus, it is necessary to develop socio-organizational capacities to mitigate and adapt to this scenario, where retribution mechanisms for ecosystem services (MRSE for its Spanish acronym) become more relevant. The research attempts to analyze the coordination among agents involved in sustainable water resources management, to face climate change vulnerability in high biodiversity areas. For this purpose, the implementation of the Quiroz-Chira water fund will be studied as a case that generates institutionalism for sustainability of this mechanism and that represents an important social innovation that can be replicated. The methodology has a descriptive scope and applies qualitative techniques that complement secondary sources systematized with WebQDA software. Results indicate high vulnerability of the analyzed basin districts and a correct governance in this innovation, both with a sustainable development approach oriented to conservation of water potential. This implies good articulation for implementation of the MRSE and promotion of interests’ unification between contributors and water resources retributive entities.
Keywords: Climate change, Sustainable development, Watershed, Governance, Ecosystem services
1. Introduction
The American continent is one of the greatest biodiversity sources, as it houses “26% of the terrestrial biodiversity conservation […] being the moorland and Amazon forests the richest tropical alpine zone and the wettest tropical forests in the world respectively” (IPBES, 2018, pág. 6). The effects of climate change threaten this biological wealth, since access to water is increasingly limited. The role of inhabitants, through development of socio-organizational capacities, is essential to adapt to this scenario. Multi-level governance processes strengthen these capacities and enable the generation of greater opportunities to incorporate, in decision-making, their knowledge on ecosystem management and equity (IPBES, 2018).
Peru has Andean moorlands and cloud forests in its northern area, currently threatened by climate change effects. Due to its location, they play a fundamental role in the catchment, retention and distribution of annual rainfall in the basin headwaters to which they belong. Such is the case of the Piura region, which developed the Regional System for Conservation of Natural Areas (SRCAN) and prioritized the Humid Mountain and Moorland Forests as a conservation corridor (Ministerio del Ambiente, 2014).
This research analyzes governance, fundamental axis for climate change adaptation, in the Quiroz-Chira Water Fund (FAQCH for its Spanish acronym). It is a Remuneration Mechanism for Ecosystem Services (MRSE for its Spanish acronym), created to preserve the forests and moorlands in the upper part of the Quiroz river basin. This is one of the first experiences of its type in Peru. These ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change and institutional innovations such as FAQCH contribute to the adaptation of the geographic space and its inhabitants. However, this experience needs not only validation, but also systematization to enable its up scaling.
Five sections constitute this study. The first section presents a literature review about the main concepts. The next ones explain the research context and the proposed methodology. Final sections include the main research findings and their conclusions.

2. Literature Review
Climate change causes increase in average temperatures and rainfall throughout the entire American continent, with adverse impacts on its ecosystems (IPBES, 2018). In consequence, it exposes “ecosystems, people, societies and economic sectors to risks” (IPCC, 2014, p. 38). These, “arise from interaction between a hazard (caused by a climate change related phenomenon or trend), vulnerability (susceptibility to damage) and exposure (people, assets or ecosystems at risk) “(IPCC, 2014, p. 38). About vulnerability, it “…is the degree to which a system is affected by, or unable to cope with, the adverse climate change effects including climate variability and extreme events” (IPCC, 2007, pág. 48). In this research, water system vulnerability is prioritized. It has a social dimension explicitly translated into components that are “a group of elements with common characteristics which, when they exist, provide a security environment in the face of extreme hydrometeorological events, affecting human development and linked to safe drinking water access.” (Ministerio del Ambiente, Energía y Telecomunicaciones, 2011, pág. 19). These elements are infrastructure, services and human condition. They are important because if they are missing, vulnerability increases.
The climate change impact also affects services obtained from ecosystems, which are “used (actively or passively) to produce human welfare” (Fisher, Turner, & Morling, 2009, p. 645). Ecosystem services are those direct and indirect economic, social and environmental benefits that people obtain from the proper functioning of ecosystems (El Peruano, 2016). Water regulation is considered in this type of services, as well as “soil conservation through preservation of native vegetation that protects water resources and dependent human activities (water supply, hydroelectric energy, irrigation and other water uses)” (Frickmann & Medeiros, 2018, pág. 33).
On the other hand, Integrated Water Resources Management (GIRH for is Spanish acronym) is a “process that promotes coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resulting economic and social well-being in an equitable manner without compromising sustainability of vital ecosystems ”(Global Water Partnership, 2000, p. 22). Water management will allow for “reduction but not elimination of impact risks on continental aquatic ecosystems caused by climate change” (IPCC, 2014, p. 39).
The pressure of climate change effects on water regulation, gives way to the MRSE, that seeks to “generate, guide, transfer and invest economic, financial and non-financial resources, so that contributor(s) and ecosystem service retributive entities establish an agreement oriented to the conservation, recovery and sustainable use of the sources of ecosystem services ”(Alban, 2017, p. 26). Management related to these mechanisms for water quality and sustainability assurance must follow one of the GIRH principles established in the Dublin agreement: “water development and management must be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels” (International Conference on Water and the Environment, 1992, p. 4). This principle is closely related to governance defined as “a set of mechanisms, spaces, routes and forms for decision-making […] that allows identifying how and where that decision-making power is exercised” (Hofstede, Vásconez, & Cerra, 2015, pág. 20).
Governance is a dimension of social innovation and consists of new practices or methods to carry out traditional processes that involve community and beneficiaries’ participation and mobilization (Domanski, Monge, Quitiaquez, & Rocha, 2016). Likewise, governance relates to the socio-organizational capacity to climate change adaptation (Hofstede, Vásconez, & Cerra, 2015). It is important to mention that good governance characterizes by “efficient and effective compliance of the institutional framework with participation of different stakeholders and following a series of essential principles”.

3. Context
Basins through the department of Piura allow its population access to water resources for use primarily in agro industry and energy production, as well as for their own consumption. Among them, the Quiroz river basin that belongs to the so-called Binational Catamayo Chira (CCH) basin stands out and provides 21.21% of its area of Environmental Water Services (Kometter , 2013).
The Quiroz river is born 3,900 meters above sea level in “Misal hill (Shiantaco) of the Huamaní mountain range, in Ayabaca province and runs through the districts of Pacaipampa, Ayabaca, Sícchez, Paimas and Suyo” (Alban, 2017, pág. 29). In addition, together with the Macará river basin, they present “the highest values for provision of environmental water service, due to the presence of vegetation cover in the area” (Alban, 2017, págs. 19-20).
However, “the ecosystems in the upper part of the Quiroz river basin (mainly moorlands and cloud forests) suffer fragmentation and degradation jeopardize the availability and water supply of the San Lorenzo Hydraulic System” (Alban, 2017, pág. 30). Therefore, in order to safeguard water resources availability and to compensate the conservation work carried out by residents of different communities, the NGO Nature and Culture International (NCI) established the Quiroz-Chira River Water Fund (FAQCH). Its objective is “to capture and manage economic resources that allow to finance conservation of the forests and moorlands of the upper basin of the Quiroz river and the Chira system, and to support the sustainable development of families that directly use the water resource” (Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional, 2020, pág. s.n.).
This fund is in its initial phase. Priority was to a group of 578 beneficiary families from the peasant communities of Samanga and Tapal and the properties of Huamba, San Juan de Cachiaco and San Pablo, who contribute to water resources conservation through the constitution and care of two private conservation areas and a natural conservation area (FAQCH, 2020). According to the income generated by the fund, other contributing and beneficiary communities will be added to the first group. The FAQCH obtains its resources through “economic recognition for actions carried out by contributors” (El Peruano, 2016). It is important to mention that remuneration is not compulsory, as it is not regulated by the National Water Authority (ANA for its Spanish acronym) nor by the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MINAGRI for its Spanish acronym). It is a suggestion given to the retributive entities to invest in the conservation of the basin. The Users Board of the San Lorenzo Hydraulic Sector (JUHSAL for its Spanish acronym), the Users Board of the Chira Hydraulic Sector (JUSHCH for its Spanish acronym), Ayabaca Provincial Municipality, Pacaipampa District Municipality, and Nature and International Culture (NCI) constitute this group.
With regard to the first retributive entity, the JUHSAL initially contributed “1% of the fee and has committed itself to reach a maximum contribution of 5% as a fixed amount from 2019 on” (Alban, 2017, pág. 74). On the other hand, JUSHCH “contributed S/ 27 000 during 2015 and S/ 28 000 during 2016” (Alban, 2017, pág. 74). As to the remunerative municipalities, “the funds come from public investment ongoing projects and from current expenses that cover technical assistance to the communities by the municipal staff” (Alban, 2017, pág. 59). On the part of NCI, valued and cash contributions are made corresponding to personnel expenses and supplies or equipment purchases to implement actions in the projects, respectively (Alban, 2017).

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