Etnobotánica y sistemas de extracción plantas medicinales de páramos y bosques nublados.

Background: This study was carried out in the paramos and cloud forests of the Andes of the department of Piura of Northern Peru and aimed to document the native fruit species known and culturally used by the communities around these ecosystems.
Methods: The Use Value and Importance indices were applied. An intercultural communication approach was used to achieve the consensus of participation of community organizations in the registration of interviews and field collections based on the timing established by the communities to collect the species.
Results: For a total of 49 fruit species ecological zone, phenology, nutritional and ethnomedicinal use were described. Of these 39 (80%) were not traditionally commercialized in the markets and only used by the communities in their nutrition and/or treatment of diseases. Overall, 27 species (55%) had nutritional and medicinal use; and among the 39 non-traditional species, 22 had dual use.
Conclusions: The traditional knowledge of the communities around the paramos and cloud forests indicated the presence of 39 fruit species not known in the market, but with traditional consumption, which makes them promising native species for science, innovation, and ecologically sustainable profitable reforestation.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, Andean fruit trees, paramos, cloud forests, reforestation, functional foods, nutraceuticals.
The incomplete scientific about fruit species of the paramos and cloud forests reduces the economic use of their biodiversity, and consequently their conservation as strategic resource in areas with a function of water control and as important carbon sinks (Torres-Guevara et al. 2020). The existence of important traditional knowledge about the great diversity of wild fruit species in these ecosystems represents an advantage for their valorization that is
Ethnobotany Research and Applications 2 endemic, given that they are found especially the Huancabamba Depression of the Andes of Northern Peru (Mutke et al. 2014). The growing demand from biotrade and public health especially for high-quality organic and functional fruits (Bueno et al. 2021, Carrillo-Perdomo et al. 2015), generates a possibility that can allow sustainable use, and is an opportunity for profitable reforestation as an adaptive strategy to climate change (Gonzáles Castillo et al. 2005, Llatas-Quiroz & López-Mesones 2005).
The permanent supply and demand throughout the year of tropical fruits is constantly increased due to the growing verification of species in trade and the demand for the nutritional and therapeutic properties of the secondary metabolites they contain (Gutiérrez Ravelo & Estévez Braun 2009, Pérez Sierra et al. 2016). The Andean-Amazonian countries harbor many underexploited native fruits of great potential as a source of diversification of the supply of
products in the Andean and Amazonian family farming economy. These fruits, because they contain bioactive compounds, may prevent, reduce, and even eliminate the symptoms of various diseases (Reyes-Munguía et al. 2016).
Recent epidemiological studies indicate that frequent consumption of fruits is associated with a low risk of chronic diseases. The combination of vitamins, minerals, secondary antioxidant metabolites, and fiber seems to be responsible for these effects. Despite this, there is very limited information on bioactive compounds and the nutritional value of tropical fruits, especially the most exotic species (Contreras-Calderón 2012). On the other hand,
even for more common species, scientific data for their adequate cultivation and the understanding of their ecophysiology to adapt them optimally is lacking. The development of Andean fruit crops in particular is seen as a possible essential and healthy contribution to global food consumption (Fischer & Miranda 2021).
The Andean-Amazonian area is an important center of genetic resources (Brack Egg 2003, Bussmann & Sharon 2007, 2016), and revaluing native fruit species, little known or still unknown outside their habitats of origin, can lead to potential nutraceutical resources with great benefits for public health and biotrade. This is an effort that requires regional research-innovation ventures. In some of these macro-regions a variety of interesting species
have already been documented (Northern Peru, 45 species (Mostacero León 2017) and 44 species in the Andes of Piura (Valladolid Catpo 2011)).
The paramos and cloud forests pf Northern Peru are in the biogeographic region of the Huancabamba Depression between Ecuador and Peru, currently referred to as the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone (AHZ) with the lowest altitude of the central Andes of South America (2500 masl) around 5° and 8° S. The complex relief influences the pattern of wind direction, and because it located at the same latitude as the meeting point of the El Niño and Humboldt Ocean currents, it contributes to the climatic complexity of this territory, which is expressed in an outstanding floristic diversity rich in endemic species, but incipiently known (Emck et al. 2006, Hocquenghem 1998, Tejedor & Calatayud 2022).
Ethnobotanical studies carried out on fruit species in the Andes of Piura did so far not refer to species of the paramos and cloud forests of the provinces of Ayabaca and Huancabamba, which have a recognized tradition of knowledge of medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to document the native fruit species of the paramos and cloud forests in the provinces of Ayabaca and Huancabamba of the department of Piura, known and culturally used by the communities around these ecosystems.
Materials and Methods Study area Ethnobotanical records and species collection were carried out in paramos and cloud forests of the Andes of Northern Peru, between 4°43’48” to 5°30’00” S and 79°28’00” to 79°20’00” W, along the altitudinal range of 1300 to 3700 masl, covering a total area of 1200 km2 (Ministerio del Ambiente 2015, 2016), comprising the districts of Pacaipampa (province of Ayabaca) and Carmen de la Frontera (province of Huancabamba), both in the department of Piura.

Post Recientes

Comparte con: